There are lots of Linux users who don’t care how the kernel works, but only want to use it. That is a tribute to how good Linux is.
As far as you can see, from your smartphones to home appliances, desktops to supercomputers, Linux is everywhere. Shocking! Right?
Now, I will take you from start to end. Let’s understand the term OS.
OS Stands for Operating System an interface between a computer user and computer hardware.
An operating system is software that performs all the basic tasks like file and memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices.
So, there is something I really need you to understand.
The most confusing question ever Linux is it an OS? or Is it Kernel?
Linux: OS or Kernel
Now you have to remember, it is a kernel distributed under an open-source license. Its functionality list is quite like UNIX.
Now you might be wondering what is kernel? And what is Unix?
Firstly, the kernel is the lowest level of the Operating System (Software).
For the sake of understanding, you may think that it is a connecting bridge between the Software part and the Hardware part.
This is how any modern operating system works:
You have the kernel dealing with the hardware, and the shell dealing with you, the user, and the applications you launch.
Secondly, the UNIX OS was born in the late 1960s.
AT&T Bell Labs released an operating system called Unix written in C, which allows quicker modification, acceptance, and portability.
Now, I hope you get everything up to this point.
Trip to History
It was created in the early 1990s by Finnish software engineer Linus Torvalds and the Free Software Foundation (FSF).
While still a student at the University of Helsinki, Torvalds started developing Linux to create a system similar to MINIX, a UNIX operating system.
Most importantly, Torvalds built Linux as a free and open-source alternative to Minix, another Unix clone that was predominantly used in academic settings.
He originally intended to name it “Freax,” but the administrator of the server Torvalds used to distribute the original code-named his directory “Linux”.
With a combination of Torvalds’ first name and the word Unix the name stuck.
Linux V/S Unix
So there are some points that will help you understand the basic difference between them.
|Lovable Intellect Not Using XP||UNiplexed Information Computing System|
|It is an operating system built by Linus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki in 1991.||It was created in the late 1960s at AT&T Bell Labs.|
|Its source code is available to the public.||Its source code restrictive.|
|The Linux shell is BASH.||The Unix shell is Bourne Shell.|
|Threat detection and solution are very fast.||Users require longer wait times to get the proper bug-fixing patch.|
|Versions: Redhat, Ubuntu, OpenSuse, Solaris||Versions: HP-UX, AIS, BSD|
Why to switch over Linux?
Most of the users think that using it is hard, they don’t understand how to use it?
The operating system I’m using currently now is more user-friendly.
So, why should I bother myself to learn a new OS?
Well, these questions are totally absurd and irrelevant. And most importantly you are unaware of its benefits.
So, you’re going to be shocked after watching the benefits I’m telling you and definitely going to switch your OS.
And it is Hacker’s favorite.
|Benefits Of Linux OS|
|Open-Source||One of the main advantages of Linux is that it is an open-source operating system.|
|Lightweight||Linux is lightweight. The requirements for running Linux are much less than other operating systems.|
|Free to Use or Low Cost||Linux is freely available on the web to download and use. You do not need to buy a license of Linux.|
|Privacy||Linux ensures the privacy of its user’s data and, it never collects much data from the users.|
|Performance||Linux provides high performance on various networks and workstations.|
|Various Distributions||Many distributions are also called distros of Linux like Fedora, Ubuntu, Arch Linux, Debian, Linux Mint, and many more.|
|Security||Linux is more secure in comparison to other operating systems. Every program needs authorization from the administrator in the form of a password.|
|Fast and Easy Installation||Linux can be easily installed from the web and does not require any prerequisites as it can run on any hardware, even on your oldest systems.|
|Proper Use of Hard disk||Linux performs all the tasks efficiently even after the hard disk is almost full and this increases the performance of the Linux.|
|Multitasking||Linux is a multitasking operating system as it can perform many tasks simultaneously without any decrease in its speed.|
|Run multiple desktops||Linux provides various desktop environments (KDE or GNOME) to make it easy to use.|
It follows five core principles:
|Everything is a file||All configuration files for the various services running on Linux OS are stored in one or more text files.|
|Small, single-purpose programs||Linux offers many different tools that we will work with, which can be combined to work together.|
|Ability to chain programs together to perform complex tasks||The integration and combination of different tools enable us to carry out many large and complex tasks.|
|Avoid captive user interfaces||Linux is designed to work mainly with the shell, which gives the user greater control over the operating system.|
|Configuration data stored in a text file||An example of such a file is the /etc/passwd file, which stores all users registered on the system.|
Following are the components which you need to understand:
A piece of code that runs to guide the booting process to start the operating system. Parrot Linux uses the GRUB Bootloader.
|OS Kernel||The main component of an operating system. It manages the resources for I/O devices the system at the hardware level.|
|Daemons||Background services are called “daemons” in Linux. |
Their purpose is to ensure that key functions such as scheduling, printing, and multimedia are working correctly.
These small programs load after we booted or log into the computer.
|OS Shell||The operating system shell or the CLI is the interface between the OS and the user. |
This interface allows the user to tell the OS what to do. The most commonly used shells are Bash, Tcsh/Csh, Ksh, Zsh, and Fish.
|Graphics server||This provides a graphical sub-system (server) called “X” or “X-server” that allows graphical programs to run locally or remotely on the X-windowing system.|
|Window Manager||Also known as a graphical user interface (GUI). |
These allow the user to access and manage the essential and frequently accessed features and services of an operating system.
|Utilities||Applications or utilities are programs that perform particular functions for the user or another program.|
|Init system||This is a sub-system that bootstraps the user space and is charged with controlling daemons. |
The init system manages the boot process once the initial booting is handed over from the bootloader.
The Linux operating system can be broken down into layers:
|Hardware||Peripheral devices such as the system’s RAM, hard drive, CPU, and others.|
|Kernel||The core of the Linux operating system whose function is to virtualize and control common computer hardware resources like CPU, allocated memory, accessed data, and others. |
The kernel gives each process its own virtual resources and prevents/mitigates conflicts between different processes.
|Shell||A command-line interface (CLI), also known as a shell that a user can enter commands into to execute the kernel’s functions.|
|System Utility||Makes available to the user all of the operating system’s functionality.|
File System Hierarchy
|/||The top-level directory is the root filesystem and contains all of the files required to boot the operating system.|
|/bin||Contains essential command binaries.|
|/boot||Consists of the static bootloader, kernel executable, and files required to boot the Linux OS.|
|/dev||Contains device files to facilitate access to every hardware device attached to the system.|
|/etc||Local system configuration files. Configuration files for installed applications may be saved here as well.|
|/home||Each user on the system has a subdirectory here for storage.|
|/lib||Shared library files that are required for system boot.|
|/media||External removable media devices such as USB drives are mounted here.|
|/mnt||Temporary mount point for regular filesystems.|
|/opt||Optional files such as third-party tools can be saved here.|
|/root||The home directory for the root user.|
|/sbin||This directory contains executables used for system administration (binary system files).|
|/tmp||The operating system and many programs use this directory to store temporary files.|
|/usr||Contains executables, libraries, man files, etc.|
|/var||This directory contains variable data files such as log files, email in-boxes, web application-related files, cron files, and more.|